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Home > Literature List > Antioxidant activity of rosmarinic acid and its principal metabolites in chemical and cellular systems: Importance of physico-chemical characteristics

Antioxidant activity of rosmarinic acid and its principal metabolites in chemical and cellular systems: Importance of physico-chemical characteristics

Journal name:Toxicology in Vitro
Literature No.:
Literature Url: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0887233317300164
Date publication:April 2017
Persistent accumulation of reactive oxygen species causes cellular oxidative stress which contributes strongly towards the induction and progression of various diseases. Therapeutic focus has therefore shifted towards the use of antioxidants, with recent interest in those of plant origin. In the current study, rosmarinic acid (RA) and its key metabolites were evaluated in non-cellular and cellular antioxidant assays, using quercetin (Q) as a positive control. The non-cellular assay was performed as scavenging of DPPH radical, whilst the cellular assay was performed as protection from an oxidant stress. Radical-scavenging activity of RA and two of its primary metabolites, CA and DHPLA, were comparable to that of Q, whilst FA was of lower potency and m-CoA was inactive. In the cellular assay, RA and CA were markedly less potent than Q, with DHPLA, FA and m-CoA being inactive, this being true in short-term (5-h) or long-term (20‐ h) exposure conditions. However, antioxidant potency of Q and methyl rosmarinate, a non-ionisable ester of RA, was similar in the non-cellular and short-term cellular assays. It is proposed that marked ionisation of organic acids such as RA and its metabolites at physiological pH greatly limits their intracellular accumulation, and so attenuates intrinsic antioxidant ability demonstrated in the non-cellular assay. This study demonstrates some of the factors that prevent well-known phytochemicals from progressing further along the drug discovery chain.


... 2. Materials and methods. 2.1. Chemicals. All chemicals used in this study were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich, Poole, UK, unless otherwise noted. Methyl rosmarinate was supplied by Chengdu Biopurify Phytochemicals Ltd. (China). ...
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